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Key elements of addiction 

Key elements of addiction
Key elements of addiction
Addiction (Oxford Psychiatry Library) (1 edn)

Professor David J. Nutt

and Dr Liam J. Nestor


Addictive substances are highly reinforcing

They are reinforcing because they induce pleasure

Pleasure leads to “liking” the effects of addictive substances

“Liking” a substance can become conditioned to substance-related cues

“Wanting” a substance can occur at the expense of “liking” the substance

Excessive “wanting” can lead to a loss of control of substance use

Substance use habits are unconsciousness - they are automatic

Withdrawal from substances of abuse leads to repeated use

Craving for substances may occur following prolonged abstinence

Craving may trigger substance relapse

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