Page of

Index 

Source:
Acute Pain (Oxford Pain Management Library)
A
A fibres, labour pain [link]
AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) [link], [link]
Abbey pain scale [link]
abdominal pain, obstetric and non-obstetric causes [link]
abscess, epidural [link]
absorption of medications [link], [link], [link], [link]
acetaminophen, sickle cell disease [link]
see also [link]; Actiq (fentanyl lozenges)[link]
acupuncture, labour pain [link]
Acute Pain Services
effectiveness [link]
objectives 34
structure [link]
acute pain syndromes [link]
addiction [link]
adenosine triphosphate [link]
adjuvants [link], [link]
administration of treatment
burns patients [link]
enteral routes [link]
inhalational [link]
injection [link]
intranasal [link]
ITU delivery systems [link]
neuraxial [link]
parenteral routes [link]
post-operative pain [link]
rectal routes [link]
sublingual [link]
transdermal [link]
transmucosal [link]
adrenaline [link]
Advanced Trauma and Life Support manual [link]
alfentanil [link], [link]
allodynia [link]
ambulatory surgery [link]
American College of Rheumatologists [link]
American Society of Anaesthesiologists [link]
amitriptyline
cancer pain [link]
elderly patients [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
myeloma [link]
AMPA (secondary afferent receptor) [link]
anaesthesia
general [link], [link]
hypnotic [link]
local see [link]
neuroaxial, day surgery [link]
planning, for day surgery [link]
regional see [link]
remifentanil [link]
spinal [link], [link]
analgesia
see also [link]
alternative [link]
in children [link]
consumption [link]
day surgery see [link]
discharge [link]63
duration of [link]
in elderly [link]
first stage recovery [link]
haemophilia [link]
intrapleural, for trauma [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
ITU delivery systems [link]
multimodal [link], [link], [link]
neuraxial [link]
patient satisfaction [link]
PCA versus conventional [link]
see also [link]
post-operative [link]
pre-emptive, for day surgery [link]
primary analgesic action, drugs with [link]
renal impairment [link]
second stage recovery (ward) [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
animal studies [link], [link]
anticoagulants [link]
antidepressants [link], [link]
anti-emetics [link], [link], [link]
anti-epileptics [link], [link]
antihistamines [link]
antireflux valves, patient-controlled analgesia [link]
anti-siphon valves, patient-controlled
analgesia [link]
anxiety [link], [link]
anxiolytics, sickle cell disease [link]
Apgar scores [link], [link]
arginine supplements, sickle cell disease [link]
aromatherapy [link]
arthroscopic surgery [link]
aspirin [link], [link], [link]
assessment of acute pain
cancer [link]
in children [link]
drug delivery [link]
in elderly [link]
measurement [link]
Assessment of Discomfort in Dementia Protocol [link]
asthma, aspirin-induced [link]
atherosclerosis [link]
attentional control [link]
autonomic nervous system [link]
' avoidance behaviour ' [link]

B
back and neck pain [link]
background pain, burn injury [link], [link]
baclofen [link]
benzodiazepines [link], [link], [link]
Benzydamine [link], [link]
bicarbonate [link]
Bier block (intravenous regional anaesthesia), distal forearm fracture [link], [link]
bile [link]
bisphosphonates [link], [link]
BK (bradykinin) [link]
blunt thoracic trauma [link], [link]
bone healing, and NSAIDS [link]
botulinium [link]
bradykinin (BK) [link]
bupivacaine
burns patients [link]
children [link]
elderly patients [link]
labour pain [link]
local anaesthetic agents [link]
neuroaxial anaesthesia [link]
post-operative pain [link]
upper and lower limb blocks [link]
buprenorphine
administration routes [link]
drug misuse [link]
as drug with primary
analgesic action [link]
elderly patients [link], [link]
burns patients
debridement and grafting [link]
dressing changes [link]
entonox [link]
intravenous analgesia [link]
nature of pain following burn injury [link]
non-pharmacological pain management [link]
nurse-controlled infusions [link]
oral analgesia [link]
pathophysiology of pain [link]
post-resuscitation management [link]
pre-hospital/early pain management [link]
procedural pain [link], [link]
sensitization to pain [link]
butyrophenone [link]

C
C fibres, labour pain [link], [link]
Caesarean section [link], [link]
cancer pain
assessment [link]
chemotherapy [link]
drug treatment [link]
interventions [link]
pain due to cancer [link]
psychological support [link]
radiotherapy [link]
types [link]
WHO Pain Ladder [link], [link]
cannabinoids/cannabis-related preparations [link], [link]
Canpop [link]
capsaicin [link]
carbamazepine [link], [link], [link]
cardiovascular system [link], [link], [link]
catastrophizing (thinking style) [link], [link]
categorical scales, measurement of pain [link]29
catheters [link], [link]
caudal epidural block [link]
CB1 (cannabinoid receptor type 1) [link]
CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) [link]
CDH (chronic daily headache) [link]
celecoxib [link]
central nervous system (CNS) [link], [link], [link]
cerebral venous thrombosis [link]
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [link], [link], [link]
cervicothoracic ganglion block [link]
C-fibres [link], [link], [link]
CH (cluster headache) [link]
chemotherapy [link], [link]
children, acute pain in
analgesia [link]
assessment of pain [link], [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
developmental pharmacology [link]
general principles [link]
local anaesthetics [link]
management of painful procedures [link]
neonates/infants [link]
pictorial scales, use of [link]
chlorhexidine [link], [link]
chlorpheniramine [link]
chronic pain [link], [link]
progression from acute [link]
cingulate cortex [link]
circulatory changes, following trauma [link]
cirrhotic liver [link]
CL (clearance) [link]
Clinical Health Psychologists [link]
clomipramine, elderly patients [link]
clonidine [link], [link], [link]
CNS (central nervous system) [link], [link]
Cochrane Library [link]
codeine
addiction to [link]
children [link]
common use of [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
and paracetemol [link]
renal impairment [link]
codeine-6-glucuronide [link]
cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [link]
Colles ' fracture [link]
combination preparations [link]
community setting, pain consultation [link]
compartment syndrome [link]
complementary and alternative medicine [link]
complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) [link]
complications
anticholinergic side effects [link]
Bier block [link]
cannabinoids [link]
cardiovascular [link]
cervicothoracic ganglion block [link]
continuous epidural analgesia [link]
in day surgery [link]
epidural analgesia [link]
gastrointestinal [link]
intravenous PCA [link]
ketamine [link], [link]
paracetemol [link]
phantom limb pain [link]
respiratory depression [link], [link], [link]
computed tomography (CT) [link]
constipation, in elderly [link]
context, acute pain [link]
control [link]
corticosteroids, sickle cell disease [link]
COX (cyclooxygenase) and COX-1, 2 and 3 inhibitors
cancer patients [link]
elderly patients [link]
haemophilia [link]
pharmacology of drugs [link], [link]
cross-tolerance [link]
CRPS (complex regional pain syndrome) [link]
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) [link], [link], [link]
CT (computed tomography) [link]
cyclizine [link]
cyclohexanol [link]
cyclophosphamide [link]
CYP2D6 (cytochrome enzyme) [link], [link], [link]

D
day surgery analgesia [link]
anaesthesia, planning [link]
changes in day surgery [link]
perioperative multimodal [link]
preassessment [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
problem of pain in [link]
prophylactic multimodal anti-emesis [link]
ward area, discharge to [link]
dementia/acute confusional states [link]
dependence [link], [link]
descending inhibition, dorsal horn [link]
desipramine, elderly patients [link]
developmental pharmacology [link]
dexamethasone [link], [link]
dexketoprofen [link], [link], [link], [link]
dextromethorphan [link]
dextropropoxyphene [link]
diabetic amyotrophy [link]
diamorphine
addiction to [link]
cancer pain [link]
common use of [link]
elderly patients [link]
intranasal [link]
labour pain [link]
post-operative pain [link]
diazepam [link]
diclofenac [link], [link], [link]
dihydrocodeine
cancer pain [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
post-operative pain [link]
renal impairment [link]
discharge planning [link], [link]
disodium pamidronate [link]
distal forearm fracture, analgesia for [link]
distraction techniques [link]
donor site, skin grating in burns patients [link]
dorsal horn [link]
doxepin, elderly patients [link]
droperidol, burns patients [link]
drug delivery see [link]
drug misuse, opioids
addiction/pseudoaddiction [link]
assessment [link]
discharge planning [link]
intravenous, conversion to [link]
maladaptation [link]
opioid rotation [link]
pain management techniques [link]
physical dependence [link]
tolerance/cross-tolerance [link], [link]
treatment plan [link]171
withdrawal [link]
drugs
analgesic see [link]
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory see [link]
primary analgesic action [link]
renal excretion [link]
dural puncture headaches [link], [link]
dysmenorrhoea [link]

E
elderly patients
absorption of medications [link]
acute pain syndromes [link]
administration of treatment [link]
analgesia [link]
assessment and reporting of pain [link]
cognitive and motor function [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
dementia/acute confusional states [link]
distribution of medication [link]
drug elimination [link]
local and regional anaesthesia [link]
oral administration [link]
patient-controlled analgesia [link]
pharmacodynamic changes [link]
physiological changes [link]
special considerations [link]
topical administration [link]
transdermal administration [link]
End-Stage Renal Failure [link]
Entonox [link], [link], [link], [link]
see also [link]
epidural analgesia
see also [link]
children, acute pain in [link]
as common delivery method [link]
continuous infusion [link], [link]
drug delivery [link]
failure of [link]
femoral fractures [link]
fractures, femoral [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
labour pain [link], [link]
versus parenteral analgesia [link]
versus PCA [link], [link]
PCEA (epidural PCA) [link], [link]
phantom limb pain [link]
post-operative pain [link], [link]
side effects [link]
trauma [link]
Eschmarch bandage [link]
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) [link]
etoricoxib [link]
evidence-based guidelines [link]
exertional headaches [link]
external beam therapy [link]

F
fascia iliacus nerve block [link]
fasciotomy, compartment syndrome [link]
femoral fractures [link]
femoral nerve block [link]
fenoprofen [link]
fentanyl
burns patients [link], [link]
cancer pain [link]
common use of [link]
day surgery analgesia [link], [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
labour pain [link], [link]
neuroaxial anaesthesia [link], [link]
opioids [link]
oral transmucosal [link], [link]
patient-controlled analgesia [link]
post-operative pain [link], [link], [link], [link]
renal impairment [link], [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
transdermal administration [link], [link]
trauma [link]
fibromuscular dysplasia [link]
5-hydroxytryptamine [link]
FLACC tool, pain in children [link]
fluids, intravenous [link]
fluorscopy, lumbar sympathetic block [link]
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) [link]
forearm fracture, distal [link]
fractures
acute, in elderly patients [link]
closed tibial [link]
distal forearm [link]
femoral [link]
rib [link]
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [link]

G
GA (general anaesthesia) [link], [link]
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) [link]
gabapentin
cancer pain [link]
duration of analgesia or pain [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
myeloma [link]
as non-traditional drug [link]
post-operative pain [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [link]
gastric emptying [link], [link]
delayed [link]
gastrointestinal physiological function (GI) [link]
gastrointestinal system
complications [link]
hepatic and digestive function [link]
pain, physiological effects [link]
pathophysiological changes, following trauma [link]
gate theory, dorsal horn [link]
GCA (giant cell arteritis) [link]
GCSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) [link]
gender differences, pain responses [link]
general anaesthesia (GA) [link], [link]
GFR (glomerular filtration rate) [link], [link]
GI (gastrointestinal physiological function) [link], [link]
giant cell arteritis (GCA) [link]
glia, role [link]
global scales, measurement of pain [link]
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [link], [link]
glutamate, and sensitization [link]
' Good Practice in Postoperative and Procedural Pain ' (Association of Paedicatric Anaesthetists) [link]
G-protein receptors, opiate receptors as [link]
granisetron [link]
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) [link]

H
haematological disorders, acute pain in
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [link]
haemophilia [link]
mucositis [link]
myeloma [link]
sickle cell disease see [link]
thalassaemias [link]
haematoma, epidural [link]
haematoma block [link]
haemophilia [link]
haemorrhage, subarachnoid [link]
hallucinations, ketamine [link]
haloperidol, burns patients [link]
HbSS (abnormal haemoglobin) [link]
head injury, pathophysiological changes [link]
headaches
cluster [link]
dural puncture [link], [link]
exertional [link]
giant cell arteritis [link]
low pressure [link]
medication overuse [link], [link]
migraine [link]
secondary [link]
sudden onset [link]
tension-type [link]
thunderclap [link]
trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias [link]
hepatic and digestive function, elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link], [link]
hepatic phase 1/phase 2 reactions [link]
high block [link]
history taking, peripheral vascular disease [link]
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) [link]
HIV-1gp120 (protein) [link]
Horner ' s syndrome [link]
hospital stay, length [link]
Hudson mask [link]
human studies, bone healing, and NSAIDs [link]
hydromorphone [link], [link], [link]
hyperalgesia [link], [link], [link]
hypercarbia [link]
hyperpathia [link]
hypnosis [link], [link], [link]
hyponatraemia [link]
hypotension [link]
hypovolaemia [link], [link]

I
IADSA (intra-arterial digital subtraction) [link]
IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain) [link]
ibuprofen [link], [link], [link], [link]
IL-10 (inhibitory cytokine) [link]
ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric blocks [link]
imipramine, elderly patients [link]
immunoglobulin [link]
indomethacin [link]
infectious neuropathies [link]
inflammatory mediators, nociception pathways [link]
information giving, role [link]
injection, administration of treatment [link], [link]
in-PCA (intranasal PCA) [link]
insular cortex [link]
intercostal nerve blockade [link]
interleukin-1B (IL-1B) [link]
International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) [link]
interscalene nerve blocks [link]
intervertebral discs [link]
intra-arterial digital subtraction (IADSA) [link]
intra-articular route, drug delivery [link]
intramuscular injection [link]
intrapleural analgesia [link]
intrathecal route, drug delivery [link]
intravenous analgesia
blunt thoracic trauma [link]
burns [link]
conversion to, in drug misuse [link]
distal forearm fracture [link]
ketamine [link]
parenteral routes, drug delivery [link]
post-operative pain, continuous infusion [link]
intra-wound route, drug delivery [link]
ischaemic pain
adjuncts, analgesic [link]
analgesia [link]
cervicothoracic ganglion block [link]
lumbar sympathetic block (lower limbs) [link]181
vasodilation [link]
isotope therapy [link]
ITU (intensive-treatment unit), post-operative pain management [link]

J
joint aspiration, haemophilia [link]

K
ketamine
burns patients [link], [link], [link]
cancer pain [link]
mucositis [link]
neuraxial analgesia [link]
as non-traditional drug [link]
pain-related outcomes [link]
post-operative pain [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
trauma, pre-hospital treatment [link]
ultra-low-dose [link]
ketansenin [link]
ketoprofen, as NSAID with primary analgesic action [link]
ketorolac [link], [link], [link]
kidney disease, classification [link]

L
LA see [link]
labour pain
see also [link]
epidural analgesia [link], [link]
neuroanatomy [link]
non-pharmacological pain management [link]
opioids [link]
regional anaesthesia [link]
supporting person [link]
levetiracetam, cancer pain [link]
levobupivacaine [link], [link], [link]
LFTs (liver function tests) [link]
lidocaine
cancer pain [link]
drug elimination [link]
elderly patients [link], [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
local anaesthetic agent [link]
mucositis [link]
upper and lower limb blocks [link]
ligand receptor complex, opioid receptors [link]
limb blocks, upper and lower [link]
liver disease [link]
liver function tests (LFTs) [link]
local anaesthetics
agents [link]
children [link]
debridement and grafting [link]
elderly patients [link]
and opioids [link]
post-operative pain [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
subarachnoid distribution [link]
lumbar sympathetic block (lower limbs) [link]
lumiracoxib [link]

M
M3G (morphine-3-glucoronide) [link]
M6G (morphine-6-glucoronide) [link]
maladaptation, drug misuse [link]
McGill Pain Questionnaire, Short Form [link]
measurement of pain [link], [link], [link]
medical patients [link]
medication overuse headache (MOH) [link], [link]
melphalan [link]
meninges [link]
metabolites [link]
methadone [link], [link], [link], [link]
mexiletine, cancer pain [link]
migraine [link]
MMT (Methadone for maintenance therapy) [link]
MOH (medication overuse headache) [link], [link]
monotherapy [link]
morbidity, and mortality [link], [link]
morphine
and buprenorphine [link]
burns patients [link]
cancer pain [link]
common use of [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
elderly patients [link], [link], [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
labour pain [link]
opiate tolerance [link]
opioids [link]
patient-controlled analgesia [link], [link], [link]
post-operative pain [link], [link]
potency ratio [link]
renal impairment [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
mortality, and morbidity [link], [link]
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) studies [link], [link]
mucositis [link], [link]
multidimensional tools, measurement of pain [link]
multimodal analgesia [link], [link], [link]
muscle relaxants, elderly patients [link]
myalgia [link]
myeloma [link]

N
naloxone [link]
naltrexone [link]
naproxen [link], [link]
N-arachidonoyl-phenolamine [link]
nasal cannula [link]
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) [link]
nausea and vomiting
in elderly [link]
intravenous PCA [link]
labour pain [link]
nitrous oxide [link]
post-operative see [link]
untreated pain [link]
NCA (nurse-controlled analgesia) [link], [link]
neck, whiplash to [link]
neonates/infants, analgesic dosing in [link]
neoplastic syndrome [link]
nerve blocks
compartment syndrome [link]
complex and continuous, in children [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
fascia iliacus [link]
femoral [link]
intercostal [link]
peripheral [link], [link]
simple, in children [link]
three-in-one [link]
nerve growth factor (NGF) [link]
nervous system
autonomic [link]
central [link], [link], [link]
peripheral [link]
physiology of acute pain [link]
neuralgia [link]
neuraxial analgesia [link], [link]
neuroaxial anaesthesia, day surgery [link]
neurological patients [link]
acute head and face problems [link], [link]
peripheral pain syndromes [link]
spinal pain, atypical forms [link]
neurolytic block [link]
neurolytic coaliac plexus blockade [link]
neuromata, stump [link]
neuromatrix model of pain [link]
neuropathic agents, myeloma [link]
neuropathic pain
and assessment of acute pain [link]
cancer [link]
defined [link]
elderly patients [link]
features suggestive of [link]
underlying condition, treating [link]
neuroplasticity theory, dorsal horn [link]
neuropsychology of pain [link]
neurotransmitters [link]
NGF (nerve growth factor) [link]
N-hydroxylation [link]
NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) [link]
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (A4B2) [link]
nitrates [link]
nitrous oxide
in 50% oxygen see [link]
avoidance, in GA [link]
labour pain [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
and trauma [link]
NMDA (secondary afferent receptor)
duration of analgesia or pain [link]
ketamine [link]
methadone [link]
nociception pathways [link], [link]
and sensitization to pain [link]
NNT (number-needed-to-treat)
dexamethasone [link]
diclofenac [link]
intramuscular injection [link]
ketorolac [link]
league tables [link]
pain-related outcomes [link]
paracetemol [link]
nociception pathways
dorsal horn [link]
higher centres, ascending to [link]
periphery [link]
nociceptive pain
cancer [link]
measurement of pain [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
stump pain [link]
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
analgesic consumption [link]
bone healing [link]
burns patients [link]
cancer pain [link]
children [link], [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
elderly patients [link], [link]
haemophilia [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
neuroaxial anaesthesia [link]
oxicams [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
pregnancy [link]
primary analgesic action [link]
proprionic acid derivatives [link]
renal effects/impairment [link], [link]
transdermal administration [link]
norcodeine [link]
norpethidine [link], [link]
nortriptyline, elderly patients [link]
NRS (numerical rating scale) [link]
NSAIDs see [link]
number-needed-to-treat see [link]
numerical scales, measurement of pain [link]
nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) [link], [link]

O
observation/behavioural assessment, children [link]
O-desmethyltramadol [link], [link]
oedema [link]
ondansetron [link]
opiate receptors [link], [link], [link], [link]
opiates
see also [link]
burns patients [link], [link]
chronic users [link]
conversion, in cancer pain [link]
drug elimination [link]
drug misuse [link]
intravenous, titration of [link]
limitations of [link]
tolerance [link]
opioid sparing effect [link]
opioids
see also [link]
cancer pain [link], [link]
children [link]
in common use [link]
complications [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
drug misuse see [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
hydrophilic [link]
intravenous [link], [link]
labour pain [link]
lipophilic [link]
mucositis [link]
parenteral [link]
patches, early [link]
post-operative pain [link]
pregnancy, use in [link]
primary analgesic action [link]
renal impairment [link]
rotation [link], [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
trauma [link]
oral analgesia [link], [link]
oral routes, drug delivery [link]
orphanin FQ (ligand) [link]
orthopaedics, haemophilia [link]
osteoclasts [link]
outcomes, pain-related
see also [link]
analgesic consumption [link]
duration of analgesia or pain [link]
functional, and general health [link]
global satisfaction [link]
intensity of pain [link]
overdose [link], [link]
oxicams, NSAIDs [link]
oxycodone
addiction to [link]
cancer pain [link]
common use of [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
renal impairement [link], [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
oxygen supplementation
see also [link]
burns patients [link]
patient-controlled analgesia [link]
respiratory depression [link]
sickle cell disease [link]

P
P450 (cytochrome enzyme) [link]
PADSS (post-anaesthetic discharge scoring system) [link]
PAG (periaqueductal grey matter) [link]
pain
abdominal [link]
background [link], [link]
breakthrough [link]
chronic [link], [link], [link]
intensity and persistence [link]
ischaemic pain see [link]
mild [link]
neuromatrix model [link]
neuropathic see [link]
phantom limb [link], [link], [link], [link]
post-operative see [link]
preoperative [link]
spinal [link]
stump [link]
undertreatment of [link]
pain centre, concept [link]
pain management, acute
Acute Pain Services [link]
assessment [link]
drug delivery [link]
procedural pain, burns patients [link], [link]
suitable techniques [link]
pain matrix [link]
palliative care, in cancer [link]
PANs (primary afferent nociceptors) [link], [link]
paracetemol
analgesic consumption [link]
burns patients [link]
cancer pain [link]
children [link], [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
elderly patients [link], [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
mucositis [link]
neuroaxial anaesthesia [link]
as NSAID with primary analgesic action [link]15
post-operative pain [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
pregnancy [link]
renal impairment [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
paracetemol plus codeine [link]
paraneoplastic syndrome [link]
paraspinal muscle spasms [link]
parenteral drug delivery [link], [link]
paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) [link]
PCA (patient-controlled analgesia)
burns patients [link]
children, acute pain in [link]
versus conventional analgesia [link], [link], [link]
elderly patients [link]
versus epidurals [link], [link]
intravenous/intramuscular [link], [link], [link]
and measurement of pain [link]
measurement of pain [link]
morphine [link], [link], [link]
and nurse-controlled analgesia [link]
opioids [link]
post-operative pain [link], [link]
renal impairment [link]
safety factors [link]
sickle cell disease [link]
PCEA (epidural PCA) [link], [link], [link], [link]
penile dorsal nerve blocks [link]
perineurium [link]
peripheral and central nervous systems [link]
peripheral nerve plexus block [link]
peripheral pain syndromes [link]
peripheral vascular disease [link]
acute ischaemic limb [link]
evaluation of patient [link]
Fontaine stages [link]
ischaemic pain [link]
pathophysiology [link]
risk factors [link]
pethidine
addiction to [link]
burns patients [link]
common use of [link]
haematological disorders [link]
labour pain [link]
PH (paroxysmal hemicrania) [link]
phantom limb pain [link], [link], [link], [link]
PHN (postherpetic neuralgia) [link]
physiological assessment, children [link]
physiology of acute pain [link]
future trends [link]
glia, role [link]
nociception pathways [link]
physiotherapy [link], [link], [link]
pictorial scales, measurement of pain [link]
piroxicam [link], [link]
pituitary apoplexy [link]
placebos [link], [link], [link]
placental abruption [link]
platelet dysfunction, NSAIDs [link]
plexus [link]
pneumothorax [link]
PONV (post-operative nausea and vomiting)
analgesic consumption [link], [link]
day surgery [link]
gastrointestinal side effects [link], [link]
post-amputation pain syndrome [link]
post-operative pain
acute to chronic [link]
analgesic delivery systems, in ITU [link]
and assessment of acute pain [link]
cancer [link]
in children [link]
complex [link]
debridement and grafting [link]
elderly patients [link]
epidural analgesia [link]
local anaesthetic infusions [link]
management principles [link]
measurement of [link]
neuropathic [link]
options for management [link]
patient-controlled analgesia [link], [link]
physiological effects [link]
principal characteristic [link]
psychological effects [link]
and stress response [link]
potency ratios [link]
pre-emptive analgesia [link]
pregabalin [link], [link], [link]
pregnancy
abdominal pain, obstetric and non-obstetric causes [link]
drug treatment [link]
labour pain see [link]
primary afferent nociceptors (PANs) [link], [link]
primary analgesic action, drugs with see [link]; [link]
procedural pain, burn injury [link], [link]
proprionic acid derivatives, NSAIDs [link]
PROSPECT group [link], [link], [link]
prostaglandins [link], [link], [link]
pruritus [link], [link]
pseudoaddiction [link]
psychological effects of pain [link]
psychological interventions/support
attentional control [link]
burns patients [link]
cancer [link]
cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [link]
eliciting patients ' concerns [link], [link]
helping to re-evaluate [link]
information giving, role [link]
labour pain [link]
Public Health Service Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US) [link]

Q
Quality of Recovery score questionnaire (QoR-40) [link]

R
radiotherapy [link], [link]
randomized controlled trials, TENS [link]
Raynaud ' s disease [link]
rectal routes, drug delivery [link]
regional anaesthesia
compartment syndrome [link]
day surgery [link]
distal forearm fracture [link]
elderly patients [link]
labour pain [link]
relaxation techniques [link], [link]
remifentanil
common use of [link]
day surgery analgesia [link], [link]
labour pain [link]
post-operative pain [link]
renal clearance [link]
renal impairement [link], [link]
renal system, elderly patients [link]
replacement therapy, haemophilia [link]
respiratory depression
burns patients [link]
elderly patients [link]
morbidity, and mortality [link]
neonatal [link]
post-operative pain [link]
systemic opiods [link]
respiratory system, physiological effects of pain [link]
respiratory tract infections [link]
Reye ' s syndrome [link]
rib fractures [link]
ropivacaine, local anaesthetic agent [link], [link], [link]
Royal Colleges of Surgeons and Anaesthetists [link]
Joint Report [link]

S
S- and R-isomers [link]
satisfaction with pain management [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
global [link]
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [link]
scalene muscles, whiplash [link]
scales, measurement of pain [link], [link]
sciatic nerve [link]
sc-PCA (subcutaneous PCA) [link]
sedatives [link], [link]
self-hypnosis, labour pain [link]
self-reports, children [link]
sensitization [link], [link], [link], [link]
sepsis [link], [link]
serotoninergic syndrome [link]
sickle cell disease (SCD)
acute painful crises [link], [link], [link]
analgesia [link]
and Bier block [link]
chronic pain management [link]
management [link]
pathophysiology [link]
sickness see [link]; [link]
side effects see [link]
skin grafting, burns patients [link]
spinal anaesthesia [link], [link]
spinal cord compression, myeloma [link]
spinal cord, epidural analgesia [link]
spinal injection, anaesthesia [link]
spinal pain, atypical forms [link]
spirometry, sickle cell disease [link]
stellate ganglion block [link]
steroid treatment [link], [link]
stress response, post-operative pain [link]
stroke [link]
stump pain [link]
subarachnoid haemorrhage [link]
subcutaneous injection [link]
sucralfate [link]
sufentanil, common use of [link]
SUNCT (Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform headache with Conjunctival injection and Tearing) [link]
surgical patients [link]
suxamethonium chloride [link]
sympathetic nervous system [link]
systemic opioids, labour pain [link]

T
tachyphylaxis [link]
TAO (thromboangiitis obliterans) [link]
TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants) [link]
tenoxicam, as NSAID with primary analgesic action [link]
TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) [link]
tension headache [link]
tetrahydrocannabinol [link]
thalamic pain syndrome [link]
thalamus, nociception pathways [link]
thalassaemias [link]
thalidomide [link]
thoracic injury, pathophysiological changes [link]
thoracic paravertebral block [link]
thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) [link]
thromboembolism/thromboembolic pain [link], [link]
thrombophlebitis [link]
thromboprophylaxis [link]
thunderclap headaches [link]
tissue perfusion/acidosis, in compartment syndrome [link]
tolerance/cross-tolerance [link], [link], [link]
topical analgesia, elderly patients [link]
TPR (temperature, pulse and respiration) chart [link]
tramadol
addiction to [link]
cancer pain [link]
children, acute pain in [link]
day surgery analgesia [link]
as drug with primary analgesic action [link]
elderly patients [link]
hepatic impairment [link]
renal impairment [link]
transbronchial absorption [link]
transbuccal absorption [link]
transdermal drug delivery [link], [link]
transmission of pain [link]
trauma
acute pain following [link]
acute to chronic pain [link]
blunt thoracic [link], [link]
bone healing, and NSAIDs [link]
compartment syndrome [link]
complex regional pain syndrome [link]
distal forearm fracture, analgesia for [link]
femoral fractures, regional techniques for [link]
pain management, pre-hospital setting [link]
pathophysiological changes [link]
post-amputation pain syndrome [link]
whiplash [link]
tricyclic antidepressants, elderly patients [link]
trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias [link]
TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptors [link]
Tsui test, phantom limb pain [link]
TTH (tension-type headache) [link]
Tuohy needle, continuous epidural analgesia [link]

U
ulcers [link]
upper and lower limb blocks, day surgery [link]
uric acid [link]

V
VAS (visual analogue scale) [link], [link], [link], [link]
vascular puncture [link]
vasculitic neuropathies [link]
vasodilation, ischaemic pain [link]
vasooclusion [link]
VD (volume of distribution) [link]
Velcade [link]
verbal rating scale (VRS) [link]
visual analogue scale (VAS) [link], [link], [link], [link]
vitamin C [link]
vitamin E [link]
voltage-sensitive calcium channels [link]
VRS (verbal rating scale) [link]

W
water baths, labour pain [link]
water blocks, labour pain [link]
whiplash [link]
WHO (World Health Organization), Pain Ladder [link], [link], [link]
wind up, burn pain [link]
withdrawal [link]

Z
zoledronic acid [link]
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