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Agitation 

Agitation
Chapter:
Agitation
Source:
Acute Care Casebook
Author(s):

Megan Rashid

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190865412.003.0036

The case illustrates a classic example of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium, which often goes unrecognized but can adversely affect both morbidity and mortality. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) is a validated tool for diagnosing delirium, but it remains a diagnosis of exclusion, and it is important to rule out potentially life-threatening medical causes of altered mental status. Treatment is difficult even with the correct diagnosis, and prevention is key. The ABCDEF bundle (assessing and managing pain, both SAT and SBT, choice of analgesia/sedation, delirium, early mobility, and family engagement) is a tool that identifies high-risk populations, and can help mitigate the prevalence of ICU delirium.

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