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Symbols and abbreviations 

Symbols and abbreviations
Source:
Addiction (Oxford Psychiatry Library)

  • ~

    approximately

  • β‎

    beta

  • %

    percent

  • equal to or less than

  • 5-HT

    5-hydroxytryptomine

  • A118G

    arginine (A) to glycine (G) substitution at position 118 of exon 1

  • A&E

    Accident and Emergency

  • ACG

    anterior cingulate gyrus

  • ADHD

    attention deficit hyperactive disorder

  • AMPA

    α‎-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid

  • Amyg

    amygdala

  • ARS

    Alcohol Rating Scale

  • ATP

    adenosine triphosphate

  • AUD

    alcohol-use disorder

  • BPND

    parametric binding potential

  • BrAC

    breath alcohol concentration

  • C-11

    carbon 11

  • Ca2+

    calcium

  • cAMP

    cyclic adenosine monophosphate

  • CB1

    cannabinoid 1 receptor

  • CEQ

    Cocaine Effects Questionnaire

  • CI

    confidence interval

  • Cl–

    chloride

  • CIWA-Ar

    Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-revised

  • DA

    dopamine

  • DALY

    disability-adjusted life-year

  • DAT

    dopamine transporter

  • DCS

    D-cycloserine

  • DIAZ

    diazepam

  • dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

  • dOR

    delta opioid receptor

  • D1R

    dopamine 1 receptor

  • D2R

    dopamine 2 receptor

  • DS

    dorsal striatum

  • DXM

    dextromethorphan

  • fMRI

    functional magnetic resonance imaging

  • g

    gram

  • GABA

    gamma-aminobutyric acid

  • GABA-T

    GABA-transaminase

  • GAD

    glutamate decarboxylase

  • GHB

    gammahydroxybutyrate

  • 3-HC

    3'-hydroxycotinine

  • HIP

    hippocampus

  • HR

    hazard ratio

  • ICD

    International Classification of Diseases and Health Problems

  • iv

    intravenous

  • K+

    potassium

  • K

    ketamine

  • kg

    kilogram

  • kOR

    kappa opioid receptor

  • LSD

    lysergic acid diethylamide

  • LTD

    long-term depression

  • LTP

    long-term potentiation

  • MA

    methamphetamine

  • MDMA

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine

  • mg

    milligram

  • Mg2+

    magnesium

  • mGluR

    metabotropic glutamate receptor

  • min

    minute

  • mm

    millimetre

  • mOR

    mu opioid receptor

  • MP

    methylphenidate

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • sodium

  • NAC

    N-acetylcysteine

  • NAcc

    nucleus accumbens

  • nAChRs

    nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  • NMDA

    N-methyl-D-aspartate

  • N2O

    nitric oxide

  • OFC

    orbitofrontal cortex

  • OPRM1

    opioid receptor mu 1

  • p

    probability

  • PCP

    phencyclidine

  • PET

    positron emission tomography

  • PFC

    prefrontal cortex

  • PO

    per os (by way of mouth)

  • PTSD

    post-traumatic stress disorder

  • ROI

    region of interest

  • SEM

    standard error of the mean

  • SN

    substantia nigra

  • SR

    slow release

  • SSRI

    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  • VAS

    visual analogue scale

  • VLPFC

    ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

  • VP

    ventral pallidum

  • VS

    ventral striatum

  • VTA

    ventral tegmental area

  • WHO

    World Health Organization

  • xc−

    cystine-glutamate exchange

  • Zn2+

    zinc

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